Which principle is used in hemodialysis?

Hemodialysis is a procedure used to filter out excess fluids and waste from the blood when the kidneys can no longer perform these functions adequately. It utilizes principles of diffusion across a semipermeable membrane to cleanse the blood. Hemodialysis is lifesaving for patients with chronic kidney failure or acute kidney injury. India has some of the best nephrologists in India providing high-quality hemodialysis services at economical costs.

Principles Behind Hemodialysis

Hemodialysis treatment relies on a few basic scientific principles:

Diffusion – It is the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration until equilibrium is reached. In hemodialysis, solutes like urea and creatinine diffuse from the blood (higher concentration) into the dialysate (lower concentration) due to concentration gradients across the dialyzer membrane.

Ultrafiltration – It involves applying a pressure difference across a semipermeable barrier causing only water and small dissolved molecules to pass through while larger proteins are retained. The same phenomenon allows excess water removal from blood during hemodialysis.

Osmosis – It is the diffusion of water particles across a membrane towards higher solute concentration to equalize solute fractions on both sides. Osmotic effects contribute to fluid shifts between blood and dialysate during the hemodialysis process.

Thus diffusion, ultrafiltration, and osmosis principles facilitate the clearance of urea, creatinine, excess fluids and electrolytes imbalances from blood while retaining blood cells, proteins and nutrients. This healthy, cleansed blood is returned back to circulation after passing through the dialyzer unit.

The dialysis machine adds or removes these soluble particles from dialysate fluid to create optimal chemical gradients for sustained diffusion. The flow rates, durations and frequency of hemodialysis sessions are adjusted to provide adequate blood cleansing tailored per patient.

Hemo dialysis cost in India

India has state-of-the-art dialysis infrastructure matching international standards at affordable pricing:

  • Water purification technology like reverse osmosis for clean dialysate
  • Fully equipped HD units with dialysis machines and bio-safety protocols
  • Highly trained technicians and nephrology teams manage the sessions
  • Availability of high flux dialyzers and single-use dialyzers
  • Patient monitoring during procedure for saftery
  • Isolation infrastructure for hepatitis and HIV positive patients

The availability of both peritoneal dialysis and conventional hemodialysis models allows customized renal replacement therapy. Leading hospitals have economy-friendly subsidized dialysis programs as well to make the life-saving procedure accessible for all.

The cost of Hemodialysis in India cost per hemodialysis session ranges varies in Type of hospital: Government vs Private Sector

  • Frequency and duration per week
  • Hospital infrastructure and capability
  • Additional medication required


 Hemodialysis has emerged as a highly effective treatment for acute and chronic kidney disease patients in India. Wider availability, affordable pricing models and established safety practices today enable almost universal access. Continued advancements in dialyzer technology and filtration techniques will further enhance patient outcomes in future.

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Written by aaditya

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